Inertial Fusion Physics

Scope of questions for State exams of Master's degree program

Branch: Physics of Plasma and Thermonuclear Fusion

Subject: Inertial Fusion Physics

Subjects regarding the questions:

  • 02FIF – Inertial Fusion Physics


1. Nuclear reactions; magnetic and inertial confinement, ideal ignition temperature, conditions for ignition and high gain for inertial fusion (ICF), requirements for energy generation by the inertial fusion, (IFE); fuel and fuel cycles for fusion
2. Phase of the ICF, spherical implosion, coat targets, advantages of cryogenic target, "Aspect ratio" targets, symmetry and stability, shaped laser pulse, direct and indirect fusion, energy gain, targets for direct and indirect fusion, their function mechanisms, advantages, and disadvantages
3. Ignition conditions, isobaric configuration for classical inertial fusion, isochoric configuration for “Fast ignition”; power balance, the role of the optical thickness
4. Hydrodynamics equations, Euler and Lagrange coordinates, shock waves, shock wave adiabate, shock wave in ideal gas, weak and strong shock waves; energy transfer, electron heat conductivity, radiation transport, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and Kirchhoff’s law, diffusion approximation
5. Heat waves types – ultrasonic heat wave, ablation heat wave, ablative heat wave; stationary ablation, detonation and deflagration wave, Chapman-Joguet solution, the role of acceleration; X-rays ablation, laser ablation
6. Hydrodynamic instabilities: Rayleigh-Taylor, Ritchmyer-Meshkovov, Kelvin-Helmoltz (RTI, RMI, KHI), boundary stability; RTI while ablation and the role of the density gradient
7. Laser radiation absorption –the main mechanism, absorption coefficient, dependence on the laser pulse parameters
8. Instabilities while interactions of laser radiation with plasma –the mechanism of generation, the increase speed dependence on the parameters, the place of instabilities generation and their consequences
9. Ions energy absorption, dependence on parameters, comparison of the mechanism of the absorption with laser radiation; general principle of lasers, description of the NIF laser
10. State equation and opacity, energy in hohlraum (relation to the material,shape, design of hohlraum etc.); discussion of the energy balance for a possible future power plant, variations of devices for fusion ignition, new concepts for increasing of efficiency